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The Melian Dialogue

Next summer Alcibiades sailed to Argos with twenty ships and seized 300 Argive citizens who were still suspected of being pro-Spartan.These were put by the Athenians into the nearby islands under Athenian control. The Athenians also made an expedition against the island of Melos.They had thirty of their own ships, six from Chios, and two from Lesbos; 1,200 hoplites, 300 archers, and twenty mounted archers, all from Athens; and about 1,500 hoplites from the allies and the islanders. The Melians are a colony from Sparta. They had refused to join the Athenian empire like the other islanders, and at first had remained neutral without helping either side; but afterwards, when the Athenians had brought force to bear on them by laying waste their land, they had become open enemies of Athens. Now the generals Cleomedes, the son of Lycomedes, and Tisias, the son of Tisimachus, encamped with the above force in Melian territory and, before doing any harm to the land, first of all sent representatives to negotiate.The Melians did not invite these representatives to speak before the people, but asked them to make the statement for which they had come in front of the governing body and the few.The Athenian representatives then spoke as follows: ‘So we are not to speak before the people, no doubt in case the mass of the people should hear once and for all and without interruption an argument from us which is both persuasive and incontrovertible, and should so be led astray .This, we realize, is your motive in bringing us here to speak before the few. Now suppose that you who sit here should make assurance doubly sure. Suppose that you, too, should refrain from dealing with every point in detail in a set speech, and should instead interrupt us whenever we say something controversial and deal with that before going on to the next point?Tell us first whether you approve of this suggestion of ours.’ The Council of the Melians replied as follows: ‘No one can object to each of us putting forward our own views in a calm atmosphere.That is perfectly reasonable. What is scarcely consistent with such a proposal is the present threat, indeed the certainty , of your making war on us. We see that you have come prepared to judge the argument yourselves, and that the likely end of it all will be either war, if we prove that we are in the right, and so refuse to surrender, or else slavery .’ Athenians : If you are going to spend the time in enumerating your suspicions about the future, or if you have met here for any other reason except to look the facts in the face and on the basis of these facts to consider how you can save your city from destruction, there is no point in our going on with this discussion. If, however, you will do as we suggest, then we will speak on. Melians : It is natural and understandable that people who are placed as we are should have recourse to all kinds of arguments and different points of view. However, you are right in saying that we are met together here to discuss the safety of our country and, if you will have it so, the discussion shall proceed on the lines that you have laid down. Athenians :Then we on our side will use no fine phrases saying, for example, that we have a right to our empire because we defeated the Persians, or that we have come against you now because of the injuries you have done us — a great mass of words that nobody would believe. And we ask you on your side not to imagine that you will influence us by saying that you, though a colony of Sparta, have not joined Sparta in the war, or that you have never done us any harm. Instead we recommend that you should try to get what it is possible for you to get, taking into consideration what we both really do think; since you know as well as we do that, when these matters are discussed by practical people, the standard of justice depends on the equality of power to compel and that in fact the strong do what they have the power to do and the weak accept what they have to accept. Melians :Then in our view (since you force us to leave justice out of account and to confine ourselves to self-interest) — in our view it is at any rate useful that you should not destroy a principle that is to the general good of all men — namely , that in the case of all who fall into danger there should be such a thing as fair play and just dealing, and that such people should be allowed to use and to profit by arguments that fail short of a mathematical accuracy . And this is a principle which affects you as much as anybody , since your own fall would be visited by the most terrible vengeance and would be an example to the world. Athenians : As for us, even assuming that our empire does come to an end, we are not despondent about what would happen next. One is not so much frightened of being conquered by a power which rules over others, as Sparta does (not that we are concerned with Sparta now), as of what would happen if a ruling power is attacked and defeated by its own subjects. So far as this point is concerned, you can leave it to us to face the risks involved. What we shall do now is to show you that it is for the good of our own empire that we are here and that it is for the preservation of your city that we shall say what we are going to say . We do not want any trouble in bringing you into our empire, and we want you to be spared for the good both of yourselves and of ourselves. Melians : And how could it be just as good for us to be the slaves as for you to be the masters? Athenians : You, by giving in, would save yourselves from disaster; we, by not destroying you, would be able to profit from you. Melians : So you would not agree to our being neutral, friends instead of enemies, but allies of neither side? Athenians : No, because it is not so much your hostility that injures us; it is rather the case that, if we were on friendly terms with you, our subjects would regard that as a sign of weakness in us, whereas your hatred is evidence of our power. Melians : Is that your subjects’ idea of fair play — that no distinction should be made between people who are quite unconnected with you and people who are mostly your own colonists or else rebels whom you have conquered? Athenians : So far as right and wrong are concerned they think that there is no difference between the two, that those who still preserve their independence do so because they are strong, and that if we fail to attack them it is because we are afraid. So that by conquering you we shall increase not only the size but the security of our empire. We rule the sea and you are islanders, and weaker islanders too than the others; it is therefore particularly important that you should not escape. Melians : But do you think there is no security for you in what we suggest? For here again, since you will not let us mention justice, but tell us to give in to your interests, we, too, must tell you what our interests are and, if yours ours happen to coincide, we must try to persuade you of the fact. Is it not certain that you will make enemies of all states who are at present neutral, when they see what is happening here and naturally conclude that in course of time you will attack them too? Does not this mean that you are strengthening the enemies you have already and are forcing others to become your enemies even against their intentions and their inclinations? Athenians : As a matter of fact we are not so much frightened of states on the continent.They have their liberty , and this means that it will be a long time before they begin to take precautions against us. We are more concerned about islanders like yourselves, who are still unsubdued, or subjects who have already become embittered by the constraint which our empire imposes on them. These are the people who are most likely to act in a reckless manner and to bring themselves and us, too, into the most obvious danger. Melians :Then surely , if such hazards are taken by you to keep your empire and by your subjects to escape from it, we who are still free would show ourselves great cowards and weaklings if we failed to face everything that comes rather than submit to slavery . Athenians : No, not if you are sensible.This is no fair fight, with honour on one side and shame on the other. It is rather a question of saving your lives and not resisting those who are far too strong for you. Melians : Yet we know that in war fortune sometimes makes the odds more level than could be expected from the difference in numbers of the two sides. And if we surrender, then all our hope is lost at once, whereas, so long as we remain in action, there is still a hope that we may yet stand upright. Athenians : Hope, that comforter in danger! If one already has solid advantages to fall back upon, one can indulge in hope. It may do harm, but will not destroy one. But hope is by nature an expensive commodity , and those who are risking their all on one cast find out what it means only when they are already ruined; it never fails them in the period when such a knowledge would enable them to take precautions. Do not let this happen to you, you who are weak and whose fate depends on a single movement of the scale. And do not be like those people who, as so commonly happens, miss the chance of saving themselves in a human and practical way , and, when every clear and distinct hope has left them in their adversity , turn to what is blind and vague, to prophecies and oracles and such things which by encouraging hope lead men to ruin. Melians : It is difficult, and you may be sure that we know it, for us to oppose your power and fortune, unless the terms be equal. Nevertheless we trust that the gods will give us fortune as good as yours, because we are standing for what is right against what is wrong; and as for what we lack in power, we trust that it will be made up for by our alliance with the Spartans, who are bound, if for no other reason, then for honour’s sake, and because we are their kinsmen, to come to our help. Our confidence, therefore, is not so entirely irrational as you think. Athenians : So far as the favour of the gods is concerned, we think we have as much right to that as you have. Our aims and our actions are perfectly consistent with the beliefs men hold about the gods and with the principles which govern their own conduct. Our opinion of the gods and our knowledge of men lead us to conclude that it is a general and necessary law of nature to rule whatever one can.This is not a law that we made ourselves, nor were we the first to act upon it when it was made. We found it already in existence, and we shall leave it to exist for ever among those who come after us. We are merely acting in accordance with it, and we know that you or anybody else with the same power as ours would be acting in precisely the same way . And therefore, so far as the gods are concerned, we see no good reason why we should fear to be at a disadvantage. But with regard to your views about Sparta and your confidence that she, out of a sense of honour, will come to your aid, we must say that we congratulate you on your simplicity but do not envy you your folly . In matters that concern themselves or their own constitution the Spartans are quite remarkably good; as for their relations with others, that is a long story , but it can be expressed shortly and clearly by saying that of all people we know the Spartans are most conspicuous for believing that what they like doing is honourable and what suits their interests is just. And this kind of attitude is not going to be of much help to you in your absurd quest for safety at the moment. Melians : But this is the very point where we can feel most sure.Their own self-interest will make them refuse to betray their own colonists, the Melians, for that would mean losing the confidence of their friends among the Hellenes and doing good to their enemies. Athenians : You seem to forget that if one follows one’s self-interest one wants to be safe, whereas the path of justice and honour involves one in danger. And, where danger is concerned, the Spartans are not, as a rule, very venturesome. Melians : But we think that they would even endanger themselves for our sake and count the risk more worth taking than in the case of others, because we are so close to the Peloponnese that they could operate more easily , and because they cam depend on us more than on others, since we are of the same race and share the same feelings. Athenians : Goodwill shown by the party that is asking for help does not mean security for the prospective ally . What is looked for is a positive preponderance of power in action. And the Spartans pay attention to this point even more than others do. Certainly they distrust their own native resources so much that when they attack a neighbour they bring a great army of allies with them. It is hardly likely therefore that, while we are in control of the sea, they will cross over to an island. Melians : But they still might send others.The Cretan sea is a wide one, and it is harder for those who control it to intercept others than for those who want to slip through to do so safely . And even if they were to fail in this, they would turn against your own land and against those of your allies left unvisited by Brasidas. So, instead of troubling about a country which has nothing to do with you, you will find trouble nearer home, among your allies and in your own country . Athenians : It is a possibility , something that has in fact happened before. It may happen in your case, but you are well aware that the Athenians have never yet relinquished a single siege operation through fear of others. But we are somewhat shocked to find that, though you announced your intention of discussing how you could preserve yourselves, in all this talk you have said absolutely nothing which could justify a man in thinking that he could be preserved. Your chief points are concerned with what you hope may happen in the future, while your actual resources are too scanty to give you a chance of survival against the forces that are opposed to you at this moment. You will therefore be showing ar extraordinary lack of common sense if, after you have asked us to retire from this meeting, you still fail to reach a conclusion wiser than anything you have mentioned so far. Do not be led astray by a false sense of honour — a thing which often brings men to ruin when they are faced with an obvious danger that somehow affects their pride. For in many cases men have still been able to see the dangers ahead of them, but this thing called dishonour, this word, by its own force of seduction, has drawn them into a state where they have surrendered to an idea, while in fact they have fallen voluntarily into irrevocable disaster, in dishonour that is all the more dishonourable because it has come to them from their own folly rather than their misfortune. You, if you take the right view, will be careful to avoid this. You will see that there is nothing disgraceful in giving way to the greatest city in Hellas when she is offering you such reasonable terms — alliance on a tributepaying basis and liberty to enjoy your own property . And, when you are allowed to choose between war and safety , you will not be so insensitively arrogant as to make the wrong choice.This is the safe rule — to stand up to one’s equals, to behave with deference towards one’s superiors, and to treat one’s inferiors with moderation.Think it over again, then, when we have withdrawn from the meeting, and let this be a point that constantly recurs to your minds — that you are discussing the fate of your country , that you have only one country , and that its future for good or ill depends on this one single decision which you are going to make. The Athenians then withdrew from the discussion.The Melians, left to themselves, reached a conclusion which was much the same as they had indicated in their previous replies.Their answer was as follows: ‘Our decision, Athenians, is just the same as it was at first. We are not prepared to give up in a short moment the liberty which our city has enjoyed from its foundation for 700 years. We put our trust in the fortune that the gods will send and which has saved us up to now, and in the help of men—that is, of the Spartans; and so we shall try to save ourselves. But we invite you to allow us to be friends of yours and enemies to neither side, to make a treaty which shall be agreeable to both you and us, and so to leave our country .’ The Melians made this reply , and the Athenians, just as they were breaking off the discussion, said: ‘Well, at any rate, judging from this decision of yours, you seem to us quite unique in your ability to consider the future as something more certain than what is before your eyes, and to see uncertainties as realities, simply because you would like them to be so. As you have staked most on and trusted most in Spartans, luck, and hopes, so in all these you will find yourselves most completely deluded.’ The Athenian representatives then went back to the army , and the Athenian generals, finding that the Melians would not submit, immediately commenced hostilities and built a wall completely round the city of Melos, dividing the work out among the various states. Later they left behind a garrison of some of their own and some allied troops to blockade the place by land and sea, and with the greater part of their army returned home.The force left behind stayed on and continued with the siege… About this same time the Melians again captured another part of the Athenian lines where there were only a few of the garrison on guard. As a result of this, another force came out afterwards from Athens under the command of Philocrates, the son of Demeas. Siege operations were now carried on vigorously and, as there was also some treachery from inside, the Melians surrendered unconditionally to the Athenians, who put to death all the men of military age whom they took, and sold the women and children as slaves. Melos itself they took over for themselves, sending out later a colony of 500 men.


rede van de kerkyreeërs in de atheense volksvergadering

Atheners! Op mensen die, zoals wij nu, bij anderen om hulp komen vragen zonder te kunnen wijzen op de verplichtingen die een belangrijke verdienste van hun kant of een bestaand bondgenootschap schept, rust de taak hun hoorders allereerst uit te leggen dat hun verzoek voordeel, of in elk geval geen nadeel met zich meebrengt en in de tweede plaats dat men op hun erkentelijkheid kan rekenen. Als ze op geen van deze punten ondubbelzinnig weten te overtuigen, behoren ze niet boos te zijn wanneer hun verzoek wordt afgewezen.

De Kerkyreeërs hebben ons hierheen gestuurd met het verzoek om uw bondgenoten te mogen worden, in het vertrouwen dat ze u op al deze punten volledig gerust kunnen stellen. Het is gebleken dat het beleid dat wij steeds hebben gevoerd, vanuit uw standpunt bezien onverstandig is geweest wanneer men let op ons huidige verzoek, en vanuit ons belang bezien onder deze omstandigheden onvoordelig. In het verleden hebben wij er nooit naar gestreefd iemand als bondgenoot te krijgen – en nu komen wij hier om bij anderen om een bondgenootschap te vragen; ook zijn we, nu we met Korinthe in oorlog zijn, door die houding geïsoleerd geraakt. Wat vroeger verstandige terughoudendheid leek – niet als bondgenoot en gehoorzaam aan andermans inzichten risico’s te hoeven lopen – is in zijn tegendeel omgeslagen en blijkt nu slecht beleid en zwakheid.

Het is waar: indertijd hebben wij in de zeeslag de Korinthiërs geheel op eigen kracht teruggeslagen. Maar nu komen ze met veel grotere strijdkrachten, geworven op de Peloponnesus en in de rest van Griekenland, op ons af, nu zien wij dat wij niet in staat zijn ons alleen met onze eigen kracht te handhaven, nu lopen wij het grote risico door hen te worden onderworpen. Daarom kunnen wij niet anders dan bij u en ieder ander om hulp vragen – en om begrip, als wij, niet met slechte intenties, maar meer ten gevolge van een beoordelingsfout, een politiek durven gaan voeren die tegengesteld is aan onze vroegere afzijdigheid.

Wanneer u zich door ons laat overtuigen, zal blijken dat het feit dat wij nu met dit verzoek komen u in vele opzichten voordeel zal brengen. In de eerste plaats zult u die bijstand verlenen aan mensen die onrecht verduren en niet zelf anderen schade berokkenen. Verder zult u, door mensen te verwelkomen die in de hoogste nood verkeren, met de grootste zekerheid kunnen rekenen op hun erkentelijkheid, op grond van zo’n onvergetelijk bewijs: uw hulp. Bovendien beschikken wij over de grootste vloot, afgezien dan van de uwe.

Overweegt u ook dit. Welk succes is zeldzamer en tegelijk pijnlijker voor uw vijanden dan dit: de macht die u met de inzet van veel geld en goodwill had willen verwerven, komt uit eigen beweging naar u toe! Een macht die zich zonder risico’s en zonder betaling aan u uitlevert, u bovendien een reputatie van edelmoedigheid bezorgt bij de mensen, erkentelijkheid garandeert van degenen voor wie u zult opkomen en die uw kracht zal vergroten! Het is in de loop der tijden maar uiterst zelden gebeurd dat mensen, en dan nog weinigen, zulke voordelen allemaal tegelijk in de schoot geworpen kregen. Ook hebben weinig mensen, wanneer ze om een bondgenootschap vragen, aan de gevende partij evenveel veiligheid en eer te bieden als ze zelf hopen te krijgen.

Wat de oorlog betreft, waarvoor wij onze diensten zouden kunnen verlenen – mocht iemand van u denken dat daar geen sprake van zal zijn, dan vergist hij zich en ziet hij niet in dat de Spartanen uit vrees voor u juist naar oorlog verlangen en dat de Korinthiërs grote invloed bij hen hebben, vijandig staan tegenover u en nu eerst met ons willen afrekenen, om daarna u aan te vallen. Daarmee willen ze voorkomen dat u en wij, op grond van onze gezamenlijke haat, elkaar tegen hen steunen, maar ook dat zij geen van de twee doeleinden zouden bereiken: ons de nederlaag of zichzelf extra kracht bezorgen. Onze taak is het evenwel hen voor te zijn: de ene partij door zich als bondgenoot aan te bieden, u door haar als bondgenoot te aanvaarden. Een offensieve, niet een defensieve reactie is vereist.

Als zij poneren dat u onrechtmatig handelt wanneer u hun kolonisten als bondgenoten aanvaardt, moeten ze leren inzien dat elke kolonie haar moederstad in ere houdt zolang ze goed wordt behandeld. Wordt haar onrecht aangedaan, dan is vervreemding het gevolg. Kolonisten laten zich uitsturen op voorwaarde dat ze niet de slaven, maar de gelijken van de achterblijvenden zijn. Dát de Korinthiërs ons onrecht hebben gedaan is volkomen duidelijk: hoewel een appel op hen werd gedaan om in de kwestie-Epidamnos het oordeel van anderen te vragen, wilden ze liever met oorlog dan door middel van arbitrage genoegdoening voor hun grieven zoeken. Laat hun handelwijze tegenover ons, hun verwanten nog wel, voor u een signaal zijn, zodat u zich niet door hen laat misleiden en u niet zonder meer aan hun verzoek tegemoetkomt. Wie het aantal gevallen waarin hij spijt krijgt van concessies aan de tegenstanders, het kleinst weet te houden, garandeert volgens ons zijn veiligheid het best.

Van schending van het verdrag met de Spartanen zal, wanneer u ons opneemt, evenmin sprake zijn, want wij zijn op dit moment van geen van de twee partijen bondgenoten. In dat verdrag is immers vastgelegd dat elke Griekse staat die geen enkel bondgenootschap heeft gesloten, de vrijheid heeft zich naar keuze aan te sluiten bij een van de twee. Het zou toch ontoelaatbaar zijn wanneer zij wel bemanning voor hun schepen niet alleen zouden mogen werven bij de met hen verbonden staten, maar ook uit de rest van Griekenland, en dan vooral bij uw onderdanen, terwijl ze ons willen beletten toe te treden tot een bondgenootschap dat voor ons openstaat en gebruik te maken van de hulp die we waar dan ook kunnen krijgen. En dan gaan ze ons nog beschuldigen van onrecht wanneer u zich door ons eretoe laat overhalen ons verzoek in te willigen!

Met veel meer recht zullen wij u voor schuldig houden wanneer u zich niet door ons laat overtuigen. In dat geval zult u ons afwijzen, terwijl wij worden bedreigd en uw vijanden niet zijn, terwijl u hen niet tegenhoudt, die uw vijanden zijn en de aanval openen, en u bovendien toelaat dat ze door werving in uw machtsgebied hun strijdkrachten versterken. Dit is volstrekt onbillijk. U moet ofwel hun beletten die betaalde krachten uit uw machtsgebied te werven, ofwel ook ons op ieder gebied de hulp sturen waartoe u zich laat overreden, maar bij voorkeur ons openlijk als bondgenoten aanvaarden en ons bijstaan.

Talrijk zijn, zoals we in het begin al zeiden, de voordelen waarop we u kunnen wijzen. Het belangrijkste is dat wij dezelfde vijanden hebben – een uiterst betrouwbare garantie –, die niet zwak zijn, maar in staat degenen die een andere keus maken schade te berokkenen. Bovendien, het afwijzen van een bondgenootschap met een zeemacht is iets heel anders dan wanneer het gaat om een landmacht. Het verdient voor u verre de voorkeur zo mogelijk geen enkele andere mogendheid over een vloot te laten beschikken en als dat niet kan de meest betrouwbare als vriend te hebben.

Wie onder u wél ziet dat al deze punten tot zijn voordeel kunnen strekken, maar toch bang is om, door ons gehoor te geven, het verdrag te verbreken, moet begrijpen dat zijn bezorgdheid in dit opzicht, wanneer u door ons toetreden nieuwe kracht verwerft, de tegenstanders veeleer vrees zal aanjagen, terwijl uw zelfvertrouwen, wanneer u ons niet accepteert en geen nieuwe kracht krijgt, minder angstaanjagend zal zijn voor de vijanden, die immers zelf over grote kracht beschikken. Ook moet hij beseffen dat zijn beraad evenzeer Athene als Kerkyra betreft en dat hij zijn stad niet op de beste manier voorbereidt op de toekomst wanneer hij met het oog op de komende oorlog, die al vrijwel voor de deur staat, alleen het directe belang onder ogen ziet en aarzelt om een land aan zijn zijde te krijgen waarvan de vriendschap – of de vijandschap! – van de grootste betekenis is. Ons eiland ligt uitstekend op de route naar Italië en Sicilië, zodat het geen enkele vloot uit die richting de doorgang verleent naar de Peloponnesus en evenmin een vloot van deze zijde daarheen laat gaan. Ook in alle andere opzichten biedt het u louter voordeel.

Om ons gehele betoog met al zijn details in alle beknoptheid samen te vatten, kunt u uit het volgende de conclusie trekken dat u ons niet in de steek moet laten. Er zijn in Griekenland drie vloten van betekenis, de uwe, de onze en die van Korinthe. Als u toestaat dat twee ervan worden gecombineerd en als de Korinthiërs ons in hun greep krijgen, zult u het ter zee tegelijk moeten opnemen tegen Kerkyreeërs en Peloponnesiërs. Accepteert u ons als bondgenoten, dan beschikt u over heel wat meer schepen om het tegen hen op te nemen: de onze.’

In deze trant spraken de Kerkyreeërs.


Vertaling : Wolther KASSIES